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Hngettwin Nikaya

Doctrines Hngettwin Nikaya differs from the two major branches of Burmese Buddhism in adopting a particularly austere approach to Buddhist ritual. In addition to requiring its followers to observe the five precepts against deceit, the consumption of intoxicants, theft, murder and sexual immorality, Hngettwin considers it to be sinful even to think about violating any of the five precepts. Hngettwin also regards most Buddhist ritual as Hindu in origin and, therefore, inconsistent with Buddhist doctrine.
The image of the Buddha should not be worshipped or venerated, only his spirit. While the gods exist, they have no power to intervene in human affairs and, therefore, need not be venerated.

History The Hngettwin Nikaya was founded by the abbot of Hngettwin ("cave of the birds") in the middle of the 19th century. Like all Buddhist traditions it was exposed to the adverse of influences of British colonialism in the 19th century and Japanese occupation in the 20th century. In 1980 the order participated in the Burmese Buddhist congress whose purpose was to unite the diverse groups within the Burmese Sangha under a central committee.

Symbols Temples, pagodas, images of the Buddha.

Adherents The order presently contains about 1000 ordained monks. (Harris et al. 1992, 169)

Headquarters/
Main Centre
 The order is concentrated in the region of Mandalay.